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Europo, vrijeme je da okončamo ovisnost o rastu!

Zastava Europske unije
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Stručnjaci iz raznih područja krenuli su s novom inicijativom za društvene promjene

Ovoga tjedna znanstvenici i znanstvenice, političarke i političari te kreatori i kreatorice javnih politika okupit će se u Bruxellesu na konferenciji od povijesnog značaja. Cilj ovog događaja, koji organiziraju članovi i članice Europskog parlamenta iz pet različitih političkih klubova te sindikati i nevladine organizacije, jest istražiti opcije za "gospodarstvo odrasta" u Europi. U posljednjih sedam desetljeća rast BDP-a bio je primarni ekonomski cilj europskih zemalja. No kako su rasla naša gospodarstva, rastao je i naš negativan utjecaj na okoliš. Sada prelazimo granice planetarne stabilnosti za čovječanstvo i gospodarska se aktivnost ni približno dovoljno ne odvaja od korištenja resursa i zagađenja. Rješavanje društvenih problema u europskim zemljama danas ne zahtijeva više rasta. Zahtijeva pravedniju raspodjelu dohotka i bogatstva koje već imamo. 

Rast je također sve teže postići zbog opadanja koristi od produktivnosti, zasićenosti tržišta i ekološke degradacije. Ako se aktualni trendovi nastave, u Europi za deset godina možda više uopće neće biti rasta. Trenutni je odgovor na to poticanje rasta omogućavanjem većeg duga, zanemarivanjem propisa o zaštiti okoliša, produljenjem radnog vremena i rezanjem socijalne skrbi. Ova agresivna usredotočenost na rast pod svaku cijenu stvara podjele u društvu i ekonomsku nestabilnost te potkopava demokraciju. 

Oni na vlasti nisu se bili spremni baviti tim pitanjima, barem do sada. Projekt Europske komisije Šire od BPD-a (Beyond GDP) postao je BDP i šire (GDP and Beyond). Službena mantra i dalje je rast – prilagođen kao 'održiv', 'zelen' ili 'inkluzivan' - ali prije svega rast. Čak i novi Ciljevi održivog razvoja UN-a uključuju gospodarski rast kao politički cilj svih zemalja, unatoč temeljnom proturječju između rasta i održivosti. 

Dobra je vijest da se u civilnom društvu i akademskoj zajednici pojavio pokret odrasta. Različito ga zovemo na različitim mjestima: décroissance, Postwachstum, steady-state ili doughnut economics, prosperitet bez rasta, da nabrojimo tek neka imena. Od 2008. redovite konferencije o odrastu okupljaju tisuće sudionika i sudionica. Nova globalna inicijativa Wellbeing Economies Alliance (ili WE-All) povezuje ove pokreta, dok europska istraživačka mreža razvija nove "ekološke makroekonomske modele". Ovaj program ukazuje na to da je moguće poboljšati kvalitetu života, obnoviti prirodnu ravnotežu, smanjiti nejednakost i osigurati smislene poslove bez potrebe za gospodarskim rastom, pod uvjetom da provodimo politike za prevladavanje naše trenutne ovisnosti o rastu.   Neke od predloženih promjena uključuju ograničenja korištenja resursa, progresivno oporezivanje kako bi se obuzdala plima društvene nejednakosti i postupno skraćivanje radnog vremena. Korištenje resursa moglo bi se ograničiti uvođenjem poreza na ugljik, a prihod bi se mogao vratiti kao dividenda za sve ili koristiti za financiranje socijalnih programa. Uvođenje temeljnog i maksimalnog dohotka dodatno bi smanjilo nejednakost te pomoglo redistribuirati skrb i smanjiti neravnoteže moći koje potkopavaju demokraciju. Nove tehnologije mogu se koristiti za skraćivanje radnog vremena i poboljšanje kvalitete života, umjesto za otpuštanje velikog broja radnika i radnica i povećanje profita nekolicine privilegiranih. 

S obzirom na rizike s kojima se suočavamo, bilo bi neodgovorno da političari i političarke i kreatori i kreatorice javne politike ne promišljaju mogućnosti budućnosti s odrastom. Konferencija koja se održava u Bruxellesu obećavajući je početak, ali potrebno je čvršće se obvezati na promjene. Kao skupina zabrinutih društvenih i prirodnih znanstvenika i znanstvenica iz cijele Europe pozivamo Europsku uniju, njezine institucije i države članice da:  

  1. Osnuju posebno povjerenstvo za Budućnost s odrastom u Europskom parlamentu. Ovo bi povjerenstvo trebalo aktivno raspravljati o budućnosti rasta, osmisliti alternative politike za budućnost s odrastom i iznova razmotriti zaokupljenost rastom kao glavnim političkim ciljem.  
  2. Uključe alternativne indikatore u makroekonomski okvir EU i njezinih država članica. Ekonomske politike treba ocijeniti u na temelju njihovog utjecaja na dobrobit ljudi, korištenje resursa, nejednakost i osiguravanje dostojanstvenog rada. Pri donošenju odluka ti indikatori trebaju imati veću važnost od BDP-a.  
  3. Pretvore Pakt o stabilnosti i rastu (SGP) u Pakt o stabilnosti i dobrobiti. SGP je skup pravila kojima je cilj ograničavanje državnih deficita i državnog duga. Potrebno ga je revidirati kako bi države članice osiguravale osnovne potrebe svojih građana, istovremeno smanjujući potrošnju resursa i otpadne emisije na održivu razinu.  
  4. Uspostave Ministarstvo gospodarske tranzicije u svakoj državi članici. Novo gospodarstvo usmjereno na ljudsko i ekološko blagostanje ponudilo bi mnogo bolju budućnost od one koja je strukturno ovisna o gospodarskom rastu.  

I u Hrvatskoj se potpisi još skupljaju, inicijativu oko akcije vodi Institut za političku ekologiju na čelu s aktivistom Vedranom Horvatom, koji punih deset godina bio na čelu zagrebačkog ureda Heinrich Böll Stiftunga, njemačke zelene političke fondacije. Svakako će biti zanimljivo vidjeti hoće li, uz već postojeću manju grupu naših znanstvenika, među novim potpisnicima biti i javno eksponiranijih intelektualaca i znanstvenika.

Potpisnik inicijative je i dr. sc. Mladen Domazet, znanstvenik koji je na Oxfordu diplomirao fiziku i filozofiju, koji je i istraživački direktor Instituta za Političku ekologiju te član međunarodne koordinacije inicijative odrasta o inicijativi kaže:

- Ovog ljeta svjedočili smo ne samo nezapamćenom toplinskom udaru i ekstremnim klimatskim uvjetima na sjevernoj hemisferi te porastu gubitaka, patnje i nasilja među ljudima, nego i intenzivnom angažmanu zabrinutih znanstvenika, aktivista i političara oko cjelovitog adresiranja ekonomskih temelja ovih povezanih katastrofa. Tri međunarodne konferencije proizašle iz globalnog pokreta odrasta, u Švedskoj, Meksiku i Bruxellesu (Europski parlament), raspravljaju o alternativnom organiziranju ljudske održivosti bez ovisnosti o forsiranju rasta BDP-a. Uz briselsku konferenciju u Europskom parlamentu više stotina europskih istraživača i profesora otvorenim se pismom obraća građanima i zastupnicima s prijedlozima planiranja budućnosti bez rasta. Sa svime što znamo o klimatskoj katastrofi koja nam predstoji ako ne zaustavimo ispuštanje stakleničkih plinova u atmosferu, lažemo sami sebi da možemo ograničiti porast prosječne globalne temperature na 1,5⁰C u 21.st. uz održavanje ekonomije usredotočene na rast. Na skupovima kao što su 6. Međunarodna konferencija o odrastu u Malmou ili Zelena akademija u Komiži znanstvenici i aktivisti koncipiraju smjernice budućeg društva otriježnjenog od lažnog obećanja prosperiteta za sve kroz forsiranje ekonomskog rasta. Krajnji je čas za širu društvenu raspravu kako se preobraziti u pravedno i zdravo društvo koje nije nepovratno uništilo prirodne temelje svoje reprodukcije“, kaže dr. sc. Mladen Domazet, istraživački direktor Instituta za Političku ekologiju i član međunarodne koordinacije inicijative odrasta.


Potpisnice i potpisnici:
Dr Dan O'Neill, Associate Professor, University of Leeds, UK
Dr Federico Demaria, Researcher, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Dr Giorgos Kallis, Professor, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Dr Kate Raworth, Author of ‘Doughnut Economics’, UK
Dr Tim Jackson, Professor, University of Surrey, UK
Dr Jason Hickel, Lecturer, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK
Dr Lorenzo Fioramonti, Professor, University of Pretoria, South Africa
Dr Marta Conde, President of Research & Degrowth, Spain
Dr Kevin Anderson, Deputy Director, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK
Dr Saskia Sassen, Professor of Sociology, Columbia University, USA
Dr David Graeber, Professor, London School of Economics, UK
Dr Ann Pettifor, Director, Policy Research in Macroeconomics (PRIME), UK
Dr Serge Latouche, Université Paris Sud, France
Dr Kate Pickett, Professor, University of York, UK
Dr Susan George, President of the Transnational Institute-TNI, Netherlands
Dr Joan Martinez Alier, Professor, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Catalonia
Dr Juan Carlos Monedero Fernández, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
Dr Dominique Méda, Professor, University Paris Dauphine, France
Dr Ian Gough, Visiting Professor, London School of Economics, UK
Dr Lourdes Beneria, Professor Emerita, Cornell University, USA
Dr Inge Røpke, Professor, Aalborg University, Denmark
Dr Niko Paech, Professor, University of Siegen, Germany
Dr Jean Gadrey, Professor, University of Lille, France
Dr Nadia Johanisova, Lecturer, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic
Dr Wolfgang Sachs, Research Director Emeritus, Wuppertal Institut, Germany
Dr Stefania Barca, Senior Researcher, Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra,
Portugal
Dr Gilbert Rist, Emeritus Professor, Graduate Institute of International and Development
Studies, Switzerland
Dr György Pataki, Professor, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Dr Simone D'Alessan
Dr Lorenzo Pellegrini, Associate Professor, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands
Dr Erik Gómez-Baggethun, Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Dr Tommaso Luzzati, Assistant Professor, University of Pisa, Italy
Dr Christoph Gran, ZOE Institute for Future Fit Economies, Germany
Dr Tor A. Benjaminsen, Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Dr Barry McMullin, Professor, Dublin City University, Ireland
Dr Edwin Zaccai, Professor, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Dr Jens Friis Lund, Professor, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Dr Pierre Ozer, Researcher, Université de Liège, Belgium
Dr Louison Cahen-Fourot, Researcher, Institute for Ecological Economics,
Wirtschaftsuniversität Vienna, Austria
Dr Tommaso Rondinella, Researcher, Italian National Institute of Statistics, Italy
Dr Julia Steinberger, Associate Professor, University of Leeds, UK
Dr Andrew Fanning, Marie Curie Research Fellow, University of Leeds, UK
Jose Luis Fdez Casadevante Kois, Miembro del Foro Transiciones, Spain
Dr Seema Arora-Jonsson, Professor, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Dr Astrid Agenjo Calderón, Lecturer, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain
Dr Tom Bauler, Professor, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Dr Gregers Andersen, Independent Researcher, Denmark
Dr Peter Söderbaum, Professor Emeritus, Mälardalen University, Sweden
Dr Lourenzo Fernandez Priero, Professor, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Dr John R Porter, Emeritus Professor, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Dr François Thoreau, Senior Researcher, University of Liege, France
Mariagiulia Costanzo Talarico, Researcher, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain
Dr Maria Nikolaidi, Senior Lecturer, University of Greenwich, UK
Dr Ekaterina Chertkovskaya, Lecturer, Lund University, Sweden
Dr Stefan Gaarsmand Jacobsen, Assistant Professor, University of Roskilde, Denmark
Dimitar Sabev, Researcher, University of National and World Economy, Bulgaria
Dr Mladen Domazet, Research Director, Institute for Political Ecology, Croatia
Dr Hans Diefenbacher, Professor, University of Heidelberg, Germany
Dr Marco Armiero, Director of the Environmental Humanities Laboratory, Royal Institute of
Technology, Sweden
Dr Irene Ring, Professor, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Dr Christine Bauhardt, Professor, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany
Dr Dominique Bourg, Professor, University of Lausanne, Switzerland
Dr Tomas Ryska, Lecturer, University of Economics, Czech Republic
Dr Filka Sekulova, Researcher, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Dr Andrej Lukšič, Associate Professor, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Dr Adrian Smith, Professor, University of Sussex, UK
Dr Serenella Iovino, Professor, Università di Torino, Italy
Dr Helga Kromp-Kolb, Professor, University of Renewable Resources and Life Sciences,
Vienna, Austria
Dr Roberto De Vogli, Associate Professor, University of Padova, Italy
Dr Danijela Dolenec, Assistant Professor, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr Alexandra Köves, Senior Lecturer, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Dr Antoine Bailleux, Professor, Université Saint-Louis - Bruxelles, Belgium
Dr Christof Mauch, Director, Rachel Carson Centre for Environment and Society, Germany
Ajda Pistotnik, Independent Researcher, EnaBanda, Slovenia
Dr Branko Ančić, Researcher, Institute for Social Research for Social Research in Zagreb,
Croatia
Dr Marija Brajdic Vukovic, Assistant Professor, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Dr Manuel González de Molina, Professor, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Spain
Dr Kye Askins, Reader, University of Glasgow, UK
Dr Carlos de Castro Carranza, Profesor Titular de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Valladolid,
Spain
Dr Annika Pissin, Researcher, Lund University, Sweden
Dr Eva Fraňková, Assistant Professor, Masaryk University, Czech Republic
Dr Helga Kromp-Kolb, Professor, University of Renewable Resources and Life Sciences,
Vienna, Austria
Dr Lidija Živčič, Senior Expert, Focus, Association for Sustainable Development, Slovenia
Dr Martin Pogačar, Research Fellow, ZRC SAZU, Slovenia
Dr Peter Nielsen, Associate Professor, Roskilde University, Denmark
Yaryna Khmara, Researcher, University of Lodz, Poland
Dr Ika Darnhofer, Associate Professor, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences,
Austria
Dr Isabelle Cassiers, Professor, Université catholique de Louvain, Belgium
Dr Mihnea Tanasescu, Researcher, Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) and Vrije
Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Belgium
Dr Daniel Hausknost, Assistant Professor, Institute for Social Change and Sustainability,
Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Dr Christoph Görg, Professor, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna,
Austria
Dr Andreas Novy, Professor, Vienna University of Economics and Business, Austria
Dr Fikret Adaman, Professor, Boğaziçi University, Turkey
Dr Bengi Akbulut, Assistant Professor, Concordia University, Canada
Dr Kevin Maréchal, Professor, Université de Liège, Belgium.
Dr Anke Schaffartzik, Researcher, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Dr Milena Buchs, Associate Professor, University of Leeds, UK
Dr Jean-Louis Aillon, Researcher, University of Genova, Italy
Dr Melanie Pichler, Researcher, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria
Dr Helmut Haberl, Associate Professor, Institute of Social Ecology, University of Natural
Resources and Life Sciences, Austria
Dr Julien-François Gerber, Assistant Professor, International Institute of Social Studies,
Netherlands
Dr John Holten-Andersen, Associate Professor, Aalborg University, Denmark
Theresa Klostermeyer, Officer for Sustainability and Social Change, German League for
Nature, Animal and Environmental Protection, Germany
Dr Lyla Mehta, Professor, Institute of Development Studies, UK
Dr Geneviève Azam, Professor, Université Jean Jaurès, France
Dr Hermann E. Ott, Professor, University of Sustainable Development Eberswalde, Germany
Dr Angelika Zahrnt, Professor, Institute for Ecological Economic Research, Germany
Dr Melissa Leach, Director, Institute of Development Studies (IDS), University of Sussex, UK
Dr Irmi Seidl, Assistant Professor, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Switzerland
Dr Shilpi Srivastava, Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies, UK
Dr Elgars Felcis, Researcher, University of Latvia, Chairman of Latvian Permaculture
Association, Latvia
Dr Tilman Santarius, Professor, Technische Universität Berlin and Einstein Center Digital
Futures, Germany
Nina Treu, Coordinator of Konzeptwerk Neue Ökonomie, Germany
Dr Laura Horn, Associate Professor, Roskilde University, Denmark
Jennifer Hinton, Researcher, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Sweden
Dr Friedrich Hinterberger, President, Sustainable Europe Research Institute, Austria
Dr Miriam Lang, Assistant Professor, Universidad Andina Simón Bolivar, Ecuador
Dr Susse Georg, Professor, Aalborg University, Denmark
Dr Silvio Cristiano, Researcher, Università degli Studi di Napoli 'Parthenope' & Università Ca'
Foscari Venezia, Italy
Dr Petr Jehlička, Senior Lecturer, Open University, UK
Dr Maja Göpel, Professor, Leuphana University, Member Club of Rome, Germany
Dr Geraldine Thiry, Associate Professor, ICHEC Brussels Management School, Belgium
Dr Olivier Malay, Researcher, University of Louvain, Belgium
Dr Richard Lane, Researcher, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht
University, Netherlands
Dr Laura Centemeri, Researcher, National Centre for Scientific Research, France
Dr Stephan Lessenich, Professor, Ludwig Maximilians University, Germany
Timothée Parrique, Researcher, Stockholm University, Sweden
Dr Ludivine Damay, Lecturer, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Dr Janis Brizga, Researcher, University of Latvia, Latvia
Dr Claudio Cattaneo, Associate Professor, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain
Dr Miquel Ortega Cerdà, Advisor, Barcelona City Council
Dr Olivier De Schutter, Professor, Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium
Dr Annalisa Colombino, Assistant Professor, Institute of Geography and Regional Sciences,
University of Graz, Austria
Dr Philip von Brockdorff, Head of the Department of Economics, University of Malta, Malta
Dr Sarah Cornell, Senior Researcher, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University,
Sweden
Dr Ruth Kinna, Professor of Political Theory, Loughborough University, UK
Francesco Gonella, Professor, Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems,
Università Ca' Foscari Venezia, Italy
Orsolya Lazanyi, Researcher, Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary
Dr Eva Friman, Director at Swedesd, Uppsala University, Sweden
Dr Pernilla Hagbert, Researcher, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Vincent Liegey, Co-Author of "A Degrowth Project", Hungary
Dr Manlio Iofrida, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Communication,
University of Bologna, Italy
Dr Mauro Bonaiuti, Lecturer, University of Turin, Italy
Dr Marco Deriu, Researcher, University of Parma, Italy
Dr Eeva Houtbeckers, Postdoctoral Researcher, Aalto University, Finland
Dr Guy Julier, Professor, Aalto University, Finland
Dr Anna Kaijser, Lecturer, Linköping University, Sweden
Dr Petter Næss, Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Dr Irina Velicu, Researcher, Center for Social Studies, University of Coimbra, Portugal
Dr Ulrich Brand, Professor, University of Vienna, Austria
Dr Christina Plank, Researcher, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Austria
Dr Karolina Isaksson, Senior Research Leader, Swedish National Road and Transport
Research Institute, Sweden
Dr Jin Xue, Associate Professor, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Dr Rasmus Steffansen, Researcher, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
Dr Irmak Ertör, Researcher, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology,
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain
Dr Maria Hadjimichael, Researcher, Department of Social and Political Sciences, University
of Cyprus, Cyprus
Dr Carlo Aall, Researcher in Societal Transformation and Climate Change, Western Norway
Research Institute, Norway
Dr Claudiu Craciun, Lecturer, National School of Political Studies and Administration
(SNSPA), Romania
Dr Tuuli Hirvilammi, Researcher, University of Jyväskylä, Finland
Dr Tuula Helne, Senior Researcher, The Social Insurance Institution of Finland, Finland
Davide Biolghini, Researcher, Rete italiana Economia Solidale (RES), Italy
Dr Pasi Heikkurinen, Lecturer, University of Leeds, UK
Dr Anne Tittor, Researcher, Junior Research Group Bioeconomy & Inequalities, University of
Jena, Germany
Dr Dennis Eversberg, Researcher, DFG Research Group on Postgrowth Societies,
University of Jena, Germany
Dr Herman Stål, Lecturer, Umea School of Business, Economics and Statistics, Sweden
Dr Hervé Corvellec, Professor, Lund University, Sweden
Dr Anna Heikkinen, Researcher, University of Tampere, Finland
Dr Karl Bonnedahl, Researcher, Umea University, Sweden
Dr Meri Koivusalo, Professor, University of Tampere, Finland
Dr Martin Fritz, Researcher in Sociology, Bielefeld University, Germany
Dr Daniel Bergquist, Researcher, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden
Dr Yuri Kazepov, Professor, University of Vienna, Austria
Dr Salvador Pueyo, Researcher, Universitat de Barcelona, Catalonia
Dr Lars Rydén, Professor, Uppsala University, Sweden
Patrick ten Brink, Director of EU Policy, European Environmental Bureau, Belgium
Dr Ebba Lisberg Jensen, Associate Professor, Malmö University, Sweden
Dr Alevgul H. Sorman, Researcher, Basque Centre for Climate Change (BC3), Spain
Dr Aram Ziai, Professor, University of Kassel, Germany
Dr Panos Petridis, Researcher, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU),
Austria
Dr Gary Dymski, Professor, University of Leeds, UK

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